Soil Health Benchmarks definition:

The contributions of ecosystems (i.e. living systems) to human well-being.

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2018) Common international classification of ecosystem services (CICES) V5.1 and guidance on the application of the revised structure. Available at:

Political definition:

Indirect contributions of ecosystems to the economic, social, cultural and other benefits that people derive from those ecosystems.

European Commission (2023) Proposal for a Directive on Soil Monitoring and Resilience. Available at:

Related terms: Provisioning, Regulation and Maintenance, Cultural