All the non-material, and normally non-rival and non-consumptive, outputs of ecosystems (biotic and abiotic) that affect physical and mental states of people.

Examples: aesthetic experience, symbolic or religious/sacred meaning, existence value, entertainment, education/knowledge.

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2018) Common international classification of ecosystem services (CICES) V5.1 and guidance on the application of the revised structure. Available at: