All the ways in which living organisms can mediate or moderate the ambient environment that affects human health, safety or comfort, together with abiotic equivalents.

Examples: Bio-remediation and filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation by microorganisms, algae, plants and animals, control of erosion rates, buffering of mass movements, weathering processes, decomposition, maintenence and regulation by inorganic natural chemical and physical processes

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2018) Common international classification of ecosystem services (CICES) V5.1 and guidance on the application of the revised structure. Available at: