Covers all nutritional, non-nutritional material and energetic outputs from living systems as well as abiotic outputs (including water).

Examples: Cultivated and wild plants, reared and wild animals, genetic material, groundwater, mineral substances

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2018) Common international classification of ecosystem services (CICES) V5.1 and guidance on the application of the revised structure. Available at: