The presence of, annual duration and diversity of the vegetation cover and its net primary productivity is essential for soil health, providing energy and nutrients for soil biodiversity, carbon inputs to soil organic matter, and also reducing erosion and surface runoff. A more diverse and long duration cover indicates conditions favourable to soil biodiversity and health and increasing vegetation cover is also valuable for urban settings.

Adapted from: European Commission (2021) EU Missions: A Soil Deal for Europe – Implementation Plan.