The studied forest stands have a total area of ca. 33 ha. The surrounding Nordmarka forest landscape is 430 km2 in area. We have four existing study locations in Nordmarka, Oslo. The sites represent a recent clear-cut forest (2 y), a middle-aged forest (55 y) where thinning has been done, a mature managed forest (80 y) and a near-natural forest (140 y). All sites represent spruce-dominated heath forest, with a relatively high cover of bilberry. Experimental treatments are applied in the ForBioFunCtioN sites, including climate change simulation by open top chambers (warming) and watering (precipitation increase), nitrogen fertilizer application and biochar.
We assess ecosystem responses to climate change and management-relevant treatments in terms of several aspects of biodiversity, carbon and nutrients, and ecological processes.