Urban ecosystems are cities and the surrounding, socio-ecological systems where most people live (Maes, et. al. 2016). They are very peculiar ecosystem types: they are almost completely artificial but they include, in different proportions, all other ecosystem types (forests, lakes and rivers and agricultural areas can all be part of urban fringe) and they are strongly influenced by human activities.

Biodiversity Information System for Europe (no date) Urban Ecosystems. Available at: https://biodiversity.europa.eu/europes-biodiversity/ecosystems/urban-ecosystems (Accessed: 10 July 2023).