Are one or a combination of soil processes that underpin the dynamics of the ecosystem structure and/or composition and can give rise to ecosystem services.

Examples: Bio-remediation and filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation by microorganisms, algae, plants and animals, control of erosion rates, buffering of mass movements, weathering processes, decomposition, maintenence and regulation by inorganic natural chemical and physical processes

van den Elsen, E. et al. (2022) A framework to assess soil threats, soil functions and soil-based ecosystem services. EJP Soil – SERENA D2.1.

Related terms: Water regulation and purification, Carbon sequestration and climate regulation, Nutrient cycling, Disease and pest regulation, Habitat provision