Sample-based measurements of indicators are primarily applied at the local scale, thereby providing the most detailed scale of assessment, but this comes at a cost, which must be considered for any monitoring system. The type of sample measurements will vary depending on the objective and context of the monitoring system and spatial extent at which the stakeholder is focused.

Creamer, R.E. (2022) BENCHMARKS Proposal – Building a European Network for the Characterisation and Harmonisation of Monitoring Approaches for Research and Knowledge on Soil.