Are useful to monitor and report a change in the short term as a result of the implementation of a practice/new technology. Typically, result-based indicators can show trends and indications of the degree of success, over a two- to five-year period following the intervention.

Creamer, R.E. (2022) BENCHMARKS Proposal – Building a European Network for the Characterisation and Harmonisation of Monitoring Approaches for Research and Knowledge on Soil.