The growing of a single arable crop species on a field year after year, for at least 10 years.

LANDMARK (2018) Landmark Glossary. Available at: (Accessed: 10 July 2023).

Fujisaki, K. et al. (2023) ‘Semantics about soil organic carbon storage: DATA4C+, a comprehensive thesaurus and classification of management practices in agriculture and forestry’, Soil, 9(1), pp. 89–100. Available at: